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Subgroup: Georgian-Hulaguid coins
Type: Subgroup: Georgian-Hulaguid coins

Description, picture:
Silver (dirhem). The weights range from 2,2 to 2,47 gr.
Copper. Weight≈2,3

d≈20-23 mm.

Obverse: Uighur legend in five lines which contains the names of the following Il-khans: Abaqa (1265-1282), Ahmad (1282-1284), Arghun (1284-1291), Gaikhatu (1291-1295) and Baidu (1295) (the legend is approximately as follows: Struck by Ahmad in the name of Khaqan).

Reverse: Christian prayer in Arabic in four lines in square within the circle: In the name of the Father, and the Son and the Holy Spirit, One God. Also, Christian emblem – cross. The date is placed in the segments between the square and the circle.



Scholarly commentary:
    In 1222-1245 queen Tamar’s daughter Rusudan ruled in Georgia. It turned out to be an unfortunate reign. First, Georgia was invaded by Jalāl al-Din and then – by the Mongols.
     In November 1225 Jalāl al-Din, successor to the Khwarazm shah, defeated the Georgian army due to disagreement among the Georgian nobles. Next year he captured Tbilisi.
    This conqueror left his trace also in the Georgian numismatics. In the abandoned Tbilisi (Rusudan fled to Kutaisi) Jalāl al-Din, probably, took hold of the state coffers, which he used for the issue of his money. Jalāl al-Din overstruck all the Georgian coins, and with the placing of a new die reissued them as his own money (Overstruck copper coins of Jalāl al-Din).

Obverse: Arabic legend in two lines within the linear circle: The mightiest sultan.
Another Arabic legend around: This dirhem was struck in the year 623 (=1226).
Reverse: Legend in two lines in a linear circle: Jalal ad-Dunya wa’l-Din. Another Arabic legend around: May God increase his glory, elongate his shadow and strengthen his prosperity.

    Quite often under the die of Jalāl al-Din there are preserved parts of undistorted legends from the money of Giorgi IV Lasha or queen Tamar. Only in some cases do appear the details from the money of Giorgi III and Demetre I. It should be also said that Jalāl al-Din’s coins were overstruck from the “irregularly” issued Georgian money. However, in rare cases, “regularly” struck coins also were used for the same purpose. These coins belong to Giorgi III and queen Tamar.
    Soon, following Jalāl al-Din’s invasions, the Mongol hegemony was established over Georgia.
    The changed political situation left an indelible trace on Georgian numismatics. Both, the face of money and the legends drastically changed. The Georgrian coins of the time reflect a difficult political situation of the 13th-14th cc.
    The coins struck after Rusudan’s reign are divided into two groups: 1. Coins of the Georgian kings in the 13th-14th cc.; 2. Mongol occupation coins.
    For the moment, we will discuss only the Mongol occupation coins.
Anonymous dirhems were already struck in the reign of Rusudan (Anonymous dirhems with the depiction of bow).

Obverse: Arabic legend in a circle of the dots: Qā’ān the just. Apart from this, there is a date, A.H. 637 (=1239/40) and the place of issue – Tbilisi. The depiction of a bow below the legend.
Reverse: Arabic legend in the centre: There is no god but Allāh alone, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allāh.

    For the moment it is unclear why this dirhem was struck by “Qā’ān the just” and not by a certain Mongol ruler. According to one opinion, at this time the Mongol court was weakend by internal disagreements and it was better to place on the coin simply “Qā’ān”.
    After five years, in A.H. 642 (=1244/45) other dirhems were struck at Tbilisi mint (Dirhems of Ulus(h) Bek with the depiction of a hunting horseman).

Obverse: A riding horseman to the left, turns to the right with a bow in his  hands; behind, the depiction of stork; below the horse, the depiction of a gun-dog. In some cases, the depiction of stork is replaced with a star or Solomon’s seal, whereas the depiction of a dog – with an unknown depiction, which can be regarded as either  a reptile or a leaf ornament. On other samples, struck at unknown mint, a riding horseman is to the right. Above: in Turkish – (Ulugh) Mangil Ulus(h) Beg. There are two interpretation of this legend: 1. Ulus(h) Beg in the name of Great Khan; 2. Great Mongol Ulus(h) Beg.
Reverse: Arabic legend: There is no god but Allāh alone, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allāh. Struck at Tbilisi in the year 642 (=1244/45).

    It is noteworthy that, apart from Tbilisi, identical coins were also struck at Ganja, Baku, Nakhchivan etc. Non-mentioning of a Great Khan reigning from Karakorum should not be surprising considering the fact that until the Great Khan was chosen, a nominal ruler was Töregene Khatun – widow of  Ögedei Khan.
    Also important is that the depiction of a bowman on the money of Töregene Khatun is similar to the composition of the copper coins struck by the ruler of Erzerum Muhammad ibn-Salduk (1174-1200). Obviously, this feature was taken by the Mongols who were known as a “bowman tribe”.
    A unique anonymous coin (Anonymous dirhems with the depiction of  six-pointed star) (weight – 2,61 gr.), dated by A.H. 643, is preserved at Simon Janashia Museum of Georgia.

Obverse: A six-pointed star made of parallel lines. Arabic legend in the centre of the star: Qā’ān the just.
Reverse: Arabic religious formula in three lines: There is no god but Allāh alone, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allāh. The legend is placed within a rectangle frame with a linear circle around. Arabic legend in the segments between the linear circle and the frame: Struck at Tbilisi in the year 643 (=1245/46).

    Silver coins of A.H. 652-659 (=1254-1261) and identical copper coins of A.H. 652-654 (=1254-1257) were struck at Tbilisi mint in the name of Mangu Qā’ān (Coins of Mangu Qā’ān):

Obverse: Arabic legend in three lines in square within the circle: Mangu Qā’ān, the mightiest, the just. In segments between the square and the circle the place of issue in Arabic – Tbilisi.
Reverse: Arabic religious formula in three lines in a similar square within the circle: There is no god but Allāh alone, he has no associate. In segments between the square and the  circle the date of issue in Arabic, which contains not only the year, but month and in some cases – even a day.

    The copper coins of Mangu Qā’ān are identical to the silver coins described above.
    The average weight of the silver coins struck by Mangu Qā’ān at Tbilisi mint is 2,62 gr., for the copper coins – 4,58 gr. (large size coins) and 2,5 gr. (small size coins). It seems that two nominals of copper coins were struck.
    The coins struck by Mangu Qā’ān are followed by the so-called “Qā’ānic”. The term “Qā’ānic” derives from the legend on the obverse – “Qā’ān the just”. There are two “types” of these coins. First “type” silver “Qā’ānic” was struck in A.H. 660, 661 and 662 (=1261-1264). Their description is as follows:

Obverse: Six-pointed star, in the centre of which the Arabic legend in two lines: Qā’ān the just.
Reverse: Arabic legend in three lines in quadrangular frame within the circle: There is no god but Allāh alone, he has no associate. In the segments between the quadrangular frame and the circle in Arabic – the place (Tbilisi) and date (year, month) of issue.

    The average weight of the coins is 2,66 gr.
    The second “type” “Qā’ānics” differ from the above described ones only by the details on the reverse: ornament is placed in segments, whereas the date – between first and second lines of the religious formula. The date is given by small Arabic signs which include one of the years of A.H. 663-678 period (=1264-1280). Their average wight is 2,61 gr.
     As we see, Tbilisi mint continued to strike anonymous coins. What was it conditioned by? Mangu Qā’ān’s death in 1259 was followed by the struggle for the throne in Karakorum. By the time of Mangu Qā’ān’s death, his brother Hulagu was a general of the Mongol troops stationed in the Middle East. Eventually he became an independent ruler of Persia, Mesopotamia, and the neighbouring territories conquered by the Mongols. Hulagu became a founder of the Hulaguid dynasty of the Il-khans. Khubilai was the victor to the throne of the Great Khan. In this difficult political situation caused by internal struggle, Hulagu Khan started to issue in his dominion anonymous coins with the legend “Qā’ān the just” which would fit any pretender to the throne. Anonymous coins were struck at Tbilisi mint from 1261 to 1280.
    It should be noted that the silver “Qā’ānics” are technically well-done and their fineness is very high – 916.
Apart from the silver “Qā’ānics”, copper “Qā’ānics” were struck too, but as the the material suggests, their amount was not large. The earliest specimen is dated by A.H. 675 (=1276/77).
    In A.H. 680 (=1281/82) the face of the coins in Georgia again changes. By that time begins issue of very peculiar dirhems, which in the scholarly litarature are known as the Georgian-Hulaguid coins. They were the first coins in the numismatics with the names of the Il-khans, but, with the Christian prayer and the depiction of cross. It should be emphasized that Georgia was the only Hulaguid vassal-state where the Christian prayer was placed on the coins. This, in itself, was a big concession from the Il-khans which directly attests to the importance of Georgia. The issue of the Georgian-Hulaguid coins took place in A.H. 680-694 (=1281/82-1294/95).
    As a rule, there was no place of issue indicated on the Georgian-Hulaguid coins. But, according to D. Kapanadze, in Baku, at National Museum of History of Azerbaijan there is one dirhem with the following legend: struck at Tbilisi.
    It is noteworthy that on the dirhems struck in the name of Ahmad the cross is replaced with a star. This can be explained. Ahmad was the first from the Hulaguids who converted to Islam and was intent on removing the Christian symbol, cross, from the coins. After this, the names of the Il-khans are repeated in Arabic after the Uighur legend. The cross is again depicted on the Georgian-Hulaguid coins struck in the name of Ahmad’s successors.
    The average weight of the Georgian-Hulaguid coins is 2,2-2,3 gr. As we see, this weight is much lower than that of the “Qā’ānics”. Also, their fineness is comparatively low – 875.
    Simultaneously with the Georgian-Hulaguid coins, also similar copper coins were struck. The dates on these coins are almost always distorted, or erased, and their chronology is established only through the names of the Il-khans.
We should also discuss quite original copper coins whose attribution is still subject to wide discussion.

Obverse: Uighur legend in four lines: Struck by Abaqa in the name of Khaqan.
Reverse: In quarters between the branches of cross Armenian legend: Our Lord Jesus Christ. Arabic legend parallel to the branches of cross: In the name of the Father, and the Son and the Holy Spirit, One God.

    The Georgian-Hulaguid dirhems, which were struck from   1281/82 to 1294/95, were taken as a prototype for the above coins. Therefore, they should be dated by the end of the 13th c.

Obverse: The same as the silver and copper coins of Vakhtang III (Coins of Vakhtang III with the Chrsitian prayer) with the only difference that the legend around the cross is distorted. In the segments, uncertain signs instead of date.
Reverse: Roughly depicted lion to the right with the shining sun on the back.

    Since the obverse of this coin is the imitation of the silver and copper coins of Vakhtang III, its dating by the end of the 13th c. should not be doubted.

Obverse: The depiction of cross in square frame within the  circle. In segments, uncertain signs instead of date.
Reverse: Lion with the shining sun on the back.

    There is no doubt about the synchronity of the last coin with the above-described two samples.
    D. Kapanadze and Ir. Jalaghania thought that the issue of this anonymous coins should have been made in one of the Georgian provinces, where the majority of the population was of the Armenian descent and there was a tradition of monetary activity.
    Wide variety, low weight and fineness of the coins in the countries under the Il-khanid overlordship hindered money circulation and both, foreign and internal trade over the entire Middle East. That is why Ghazan Khan (1295-1304) implemented a money reform – money standardization. Through the reform of Ghazan Khan (1296), the weight of a silver dirhem was defined by 2,13 gr. From that time on the coins struck in Georgia in the name of the Hulaguids differed from the coins struck in Iran only by a mint name.
    The earliest standardized coin (Post-reform issues of the Hulaguids) of Ghazan Khan struck at Tbilisi is dated by A.H. 698 (=1298/99).

Obverse: Uighur legend in four lines within the linear circle and the circle of the dots: With the power of heaven, struck by Ghazan. Ornament above the legend. Between third and fourth lines in Arabic – Ghazan Mahmud. To the left, vertical legend in Tibetan – Ghazan Mahmud.
Reverse: Arabic legend in four lines within the ornamented pentagon: There is no god, but Allāh alone, struck at Tbilisi, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allāh. Vertical legends to both sides – May god bless him. Date in segments between the pentagon and the linear circle – A.H. 698 (=1298/99). Ornament in one of the segments.

    The coins from Tbilisi mint struck in Ghazan Khan’s time are represented solely by the dirhems. The coins struck at Tbilisi mint in the name of Ghazan Khan are dated by A.H. 698, 699, 700, 701.
    One of the coins struck in the name of Ghazan differs from the above-described only by the place of issue. In the third line of the legend it is read: Struck at Akhaltsikhe. It seems, in the time of Ghazan Khan there was the second mint operating in Georgia, namely in Akhaltsikhe, Samtskhe (Southern Georgia).
    Evg. Pakhomov knew about copper coin of A.H. 700 (=1300/1301) struck at Tbilisi, which was similar to Ghazan Khan’s standardized dirhem.
    Following the death of Ghazan Khan, he was succeeded by his brother Ūljāitū (1304-1316). Ūljāitū, after he converted to Islam, took a new name – Muhammad Khudābandeh (slave of god in Persian). The names of the four Orthodox Caliphs were placed for the first time on the coins of new Il-khan. When Ūljāitū embraced Shia Islam, a religious Shia formula and the names of the Twelve Imams appeared on the coins struck from A.H. 709 (=1309/1310).
    There were only dirhems and double-dirhems struck at Tbilisi mint.
    After Ūljāitū, in 1316 Abu-Sa’id became the Il-khan (1316-1335). In the last years of Ūljāitū’s reign and during Abu-Sa’id’s rule, the reform of Ghazan Khan slowly lost its impact. The weight of dirhems decreased several times in Abu-Sa’id’s reign. Thus, in the last years of his rule the weight decreased till 1,4 gr.
    After Abu-Sa’id’s death (1335), the Il-khans’ state disintegrated. The real hegemons over Georgia should have been the Chobanids – rulers of Azerbaijan. Their rivals were the Jala’irids.
    From that period on new pretenders from the Hulaguid dynasty were  placed on the throne of the Il-khans by various groups. Still, in Eastern Georgia money was struck by these puppets.
    The following coins were struck at Tbilisi mint: in the name of Arpa Khan (A.H. 736=1335/36), Muhammad Khan (A.H. 738=1337/38), Sati Beg Khatun (A.H. 739=1338/39), Suleyman Khan (A.H. 740=1339/40; A.H. 741=1340/41; A.H. 743=1342/43), and Anushirwan (A.H. 745=1344/45; A.H. 748=1347/48; A.H. 750-756=1349-1354).
    It is noteworthy that the part of the coins of Suleyman and Anushirwan was struck at Karaghaji (city in Kakheti, Eastern province of Georgia) mint.
    There are also copper coins struck at Tbilisi in the name of Ūljāitū, Abu-Sa’id, and Anushirwan. Overall, the copper coins struck in Georgia by the Il-khans are represented in a much smaller quantity than the silver coins.
    In A.H. 757 (=1356) coins at Tbilisi mint were struck in the name of the ruler of the Golden Horde Jani Beg Juchid, next – in the name of Berdi Beg Juchid (date on the coin is unreadable) (Money of the Juchids).
    The description of these rarest coins is as follows:

Obverse: Arabic legend in two lines – Sultan the just, Jani Beg Khan. Linear circle and a circle of the dots around.
Reverse: In six-petal rose in Arabic – Struck at Tbilisi in the year 757 (=1356). Linear circle and a circle of the dots around.

Obverse: In Arabic – Sultan the just . . . Khan.
Reverse: In six-petal rose in Arabic – Struck at Tbilisi in the year 757 (=1356). 

Obverse: In Arabic – Sultan Berdi Beg Khan. Struck at Tbilisi . . .
Reverse: In Arabic – There is no god, but Allāh alone, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allāh. Names of the four Orthodox Caliphs.

    The last coin comes from the hoard found in Armenia in 1912 and is kept at Hermitage.
    As it is known, following the death of Abu-Sa’id (1316-1333) the Il-khanid state broke up with Azerbaijan falling under the authority of the Chobanids. They established tyrannical rule causing discontent among local officials who asked Jani Beg, the khan of the Golden Horde, to attach Azerbaijan to his ulus. Jani Beg (1342-1357) conducted towards Azerbaijan a traditional policy implemented by Golden Horde rulers. He, according to the written sources, in A.H. 758 (=1357) defeated the Chobanid Malik Ashraf, captured Tabriz and for a short time attached Azerbaijan to the Golden Horde. As a result of this conquest, the mint of Tabriz (and some other cities of Azerbaijan) in A.H. 757 (=1356) struck silver coins in the name of Jani Beg. Here is some discrepancy between written sources and the numismatic material: written sources date the conquest of Jani Beg by A.H. 758, whereas the numismatic material dates it by A.H. 757. Probably, the numismatic material shows the above fact more correctly than the written sources. Simutaneoulsy, in the same A.H. 757, coins were struck at Tbilisi mint.
    Now, if we rememeber that Giorgi V the Brilliant in 1337/38 subdued Ossetia, beyond the Caucasus mountain range, and the Georgian kings (Giorgi V, David IX) struck the coins in the name of the Il-khans (1338/39, 1348/50) in Alagir and Karjin, territories under the Golden Horde influence, then it is absolutely clear that the Juchids retaliated and struck coins in their own name at Tbilisi mint.
    In A.H. 758 Tbilisi mint reacted to the changes which happened in the politics of the Golden Horde. Jani Beg did not stay in Azerbaijan for a long time. He left there his son Berdi Beg and got ill on his way to Saray. Berdi Beg hastened to the main headquarters  and organized coup d’etat. This event was reflected by Tbilisi mint, which struck the silver coins in the name of Berdi Beg. Although the date on the coin is erased, without doubt there should have been inscribed 758.
    Akhichuk, left by Berdi Beg in Azerbaijan, betrayed him and took over the power. But his rule turned out to be short. In A.H. 759 (=1357/58) Persian Iraq and Azerbaijan, including Tabriz, were conquered for a short period by the Muzafarids. Afterwards, the Jala’irid sheikh Uvais defeated the Muzafarids and also captured Akhichuk.
Money issue in Georgia became the prerogative of the Jala’irids. This is well testified by the coins struck at Tbilisi in the name of sheikh Uvais. Silver coins (Money of the Jala’irids) were already struck in his name at Tbilisi in A.H. 759 (1357/58).

Obverse: Arabic legend in three lines in double circle – The mightiest sultan, Uvais Bahadur Khan, may his reign be alongated. Legend around – Struck at Tbilisi in the year 759 (=1357/58).
Reverse: Muslim religious formula and the names of four Caliphs in double circle.

    A new pattern of dirhem was introduced into the Jala’irid state in A.H. 766 (1364/1365). Similar money was struck at Tbilisi mint. These coins became known through the finding of a hoard in 1955 in Dzukati village (Leningori (Akhalgori) district). The hoard contained 83 small silver coins. Here is the description:

Obverse: Arabic legend in the intersection of three semi-circles – Sultan Uvais, may his reign be alongated. Between the semi-circles  the place of issue – Struck at Tbilisi. The date around the semi-circles can not be read on any of the samples from Akhalgori/Leningori hoard.
Reverse: Muslim religious formula in the intersection of six semi-circles, which is placed within the frame of dots – There is no god, but Allāh alone, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allāh.

    According to Ir. Jalaghania, despite the fact that it is impossible to read the date on any sample, probably, the coins should be dated by A.H. 766-776 (=1364-1375), since it was in A.H. 766 that the pattern was introduced, and sheikh Uvais died in A.H. 776.
Mint: Tbilisi.
Nominal: Silver (dirhem). 2,2-2,47 gr. Copper. ≈2,3.
Date: 1281/82-1294/95.
Collection: Simon Janashia Museum of Georgia – ex. QF. (Main Fund of the Georgian Coins, Numismatic Collection, Simon Janashia Museum of Georgia) №№439-442, QF. №№460-469, QF. №481, QF. №№2162-2174, QF. №№4472-4502, QF. №№4516-4544; GF. (Fund of Treasury, Numismatic Collection, Simon Janashia Museum of Georgia) №№5354-5366, GF. №№11634-11637, GF. №№12262-12263; Hermitage – several samples; National Museum of History of Azerbaijan – several samples.
Bibliography:
G. Dundua. Money in Georgia (Georg. and Engl. parallel texts). Tb. 2003 (2nd Edition) (T. Dundua, N. Javakhishvili and A. Eristavi as co-authors); Georgian Numismatics. I. Tb. 2006 (T. Dundua as co-author) (in Georg.); Georgian Numismatics. II. Tb. 2011 (T. Dundua as co-author) (in Georg.); Georgian Numismatic Dictionary. Tb. 2009 (Ir. Jalaghania as co-author) (in Georg.); Eastern Georgian Money Issues in the 14th c. Tb. 2010 (T. Dundua as co-author) (in Georg.).

Ts. Ghvaberidze. Relations of Georgia with the Il-khanid Iran and the Jalairids. Tb. 1986 (in Georg.).

D. Kapanadze. Georgian Numismatics. Tb. 1969 (in Georg.).

T. Lomouri. Kodala Hoard. Bulletin (“Moambe”) of the State Museum of Georgia. Vol. XIV-B. Tb. 1947 (in Georg.); Kodala Hoard. Part II. About History of Money Circulation in Medieval Georgia – Selected Articles. Tb. 2005 (in Georg.); About the Relations of Georgia with the Golden Horde in the 14th c. (Juchid Money of Ali Hoard). About History of Money Circulation in Medieval Georgia – Selected Articles. Tb. 2005 (in Georg.); Coins of Ahmad Jala’ir and Giorgi VII. About History of Money Circulation in Medieval Georgia – Selected Articles. Tb. 2005 (in Georg.); Money of the last Il-khans in Georgia. About History of Money Circulation in Medieval Georgia – Selected Articles. Tb. 2005 (in Georg.).

И. Л. Джалаганиа. Из истории монетного дела в Грузии XIII века. Тб. 1958.

Д. Г. Капанадзе. Грузинская нумизматика. М. 1955.

Е. А. Пахомов. Монеты Грузии. Тб. 1970; Монетные клады Азербайджана и других республик, краев и областей Кавказа. Вып. I-IX. Баку. 1926-66.

D. M. Lang. Studies in the Numismatic History of Georgia in Transcaucasia. New York. 1955.
Imported coins found in Georgia:


Imported coins of the 13th-14th  cc. found in East Georgia


    While reviewing the imported coins of this period found in East Georgia, we will pay attention to various hoards since their contents reflect well the circulation picture of imported coins across East Georgia.
    1. Hoard from Kodala. With the help of I. Mosulishvili, a hoard of silver coins was transferred into State Museum of Georgia in three phases in 1940, 1941 and 1948. The hoard, which contains 502 coins, was found in Kodala village (Gurjaani district).
    The hoard from Kodala was studied and first published by T. Lomouri with some additions afterwards made by Ts. Ghvaberidze.
    According to the attribution of T. Lomouri, the hoard contains money struck in the name of Ghazan Khan (1295-1304) and sultan Uljaitu (1304-1316), one Seljuk coin which belongs to the sultan of Rum Kaihkusrau II (1236-1245).
    The majority of the coins (491) are dirhems, 10 are double dirhems. Most of the coins are struck in the name of Ghazan Khan.
    After another review of the coins, dates and names of mint were clarified. Here are the mints where the coins were struck: Tbilisi (166), Tabriz (62),  Akhaltsikhe (18), Sivas (20), Jezire (16), Samsun (3), Bazar (12), Nakhchivan (12), Khlat (Ahlat) (9), Nisa (13), Erbil (9), Barda (8), Baghdad (7), Erzincan  (7), Sinjar (6), Mosul (5), Tokat (4), Erzerum (3), Isfahan (3), Anisi (3), Amasia (7), Beq-Bazar (8), Hile (2), Mayyafariqin (2), Hydlis (1), Ganja (1), Save  (1), Wasit (1), Arminia (?) (1), Shiraz (1), Hamadan (1), Qashan (1), Ravia (1), Nishabur (1), Shusther (3).
    Ts. Ghvaberidze doubted the name of mint on some of the standard dirhems of Ghazan Khan, suggested by T. Lomouri. Lomouri reads the mint name as “Samsun”.  However, according to the graphics, it should be “Nisa”, city to the south-east of the Caspian Sea, located on a trade route, 20 km. from Ashkhabad.
    One-third of the hoard was struck at Tbilisi mint; then comes the money from Tabriz; from Sivas; from Akhaltsikhe etc. The demand of East Georgia market was  mainly filled with the money from Tbilisi mint.
    Lomouri dated the hoard from Kodala by A.H. 694-715 (=1294-1315/16). Ts. Ghvaberidze dated the hoard by A.H. 696-705 (=1296-1306). The hoard was buried after A.H. 705 (=1306).
    2. A hoard of silver coins was accidentally found in 1979 in Poka village (Ninotsminda district) near Paravani Lake. The hoard was placed in a clay vessel. The  part of the hoard was lost and only 155 pieces are kept at Simon Janashia Museum of Georgia. The hoard contained the coins struck in the name of Uljaitu (double  dirhems and dirhems) from the following mints: Tbilisi (27), Anisi (14), Samsun (?) (11), Tabriz (8), Bazar (3), Barda (1), Garnisi (1), Baghdad (1), Sultania  (1), Erzincan (1). The earliest coin from the hoard is dated by A.H. 709 (=1309/1310), whereas the latest – by A.H. 715 (=1315/1316). The hoard of Poka was buried after 1316. However, following the reattribution of the above money, the quantitative distribution of dirhems according to various mints is slightly different.
    3. Silver coins of 13th-14th cc. were found in 1968 in Uraveli village (Akhaltsikhe district) during demolition works. The composition of the hoard is as follows: a) dirhems of the 20-30s of 13th c. from Rum – 5; b) “Qā’ānic” I “type” – 1; c) Qā’ānic” II “type” – 2; d) Georgian-Hulaguid dirhems – 4; e) dramas of Vakhtang III (1297-1308) struck at Tbilisi mint in A.H. 698 (=1298/99) – 4; f) dirhems of Ghazan Qa’an – 2; g) dirhems of Hulaguid Abu-Sa’id – 1. The hoard which was buried after 1333, is nowadays kept at Simon Janashia Museum  of Georgia.
    4. 3 coins from a hoard of the silver coins found in 1958 during the agricultural works in Darchieti village (Gurjaani distrit) were introduced into Simon Janashia Museum of Georgia: 1. dirhem of Kaihkusrau the Seljukid struck in A.H. 628 (=1230/1231); 2. dirhem of Hulaguid Abaqa (1265-1282); 3. double dirhem of Abu-Sa’id struck in A.H. 724 (=1323/1324) at Tabriz.
    5. A small hoard of silver coins (11) was found in 1979 during agricultural works in Jandara village (Marneuli district). 3 coins are struck at Tbilisi in the  name of Uljaitu, 2 of them are dated by A.H. 714 (=1314/1315). 1 coin belongs to the mint of Anisi and is dated by A.H. 711 (=1311/1312). 7 double dirhems belong to Il-khan Abu-Sa’id (1316-1335), 4 out of them were struck at Tbilisi in A.H. 727 (=1326/1327). Name of a mint on two of the coins is unreadable, whereas 1 coin was struck at Sultania in A.H. 724 (=1323/1324). Most probably, the hoard was buried in the late 20s of the 14th c. The coins are kept at Simon Janashia Museum of Georgia.
    6. A hoard of silver coins found in 1948 near Grigolati village (Kharagauli district) was divided between the finders. Only 3 pieces were examined, and all of  them are double dirhems of Abu-Sa’id.
    7. 92 silver coins in a clay pot were found in Patara Gomareti village (Dmanisi district) in 1936. This money belongs to the last Hulaguids: Muhammad (1335-1338) – 2; Sati Beg (1338-1340) – 5; Tughatemur (1336-1340) – 1; Suleyman (1339-1346) – 80. 4 pieces are unidentified. The dirhems were struck at the following  mints: Bazar, Tbilisi, Tabriz, Shirvan (?), Barda, Sultania, Anisi. The hoard was buried after the 40s of the 14th c.
    8. Silver coins (243 samples) of the last Hulaguids were found in 1862 in Sartichala village (Sagarejo district). The hoard was placed in faience vessel inside an old tomb. Its contents are as follows: money of Sati Beg Khatun struck in A.H. 739 (=1338/1339) at the following mints – Ardebil, Bazar, Belaqan, Khoi and some are unidentified; coins of Suleyman struck in A.H. 740 (=1339/1340) at the following mints: Ardebil, Bazar, Baku (?), Baiburt, Barda, Belaqan, Qashan, Calistuvan, Nachchivan, Hamadan, Tabriz, Maragheh, Sultania, Khoi, Salmas. The hoard was buried in the mid-14th c.
    9. A hoard of silver coins was found in 1954 during the works on Tskhinvali-Kheiti  road. The hoard was dispersed. The extant 22 coins belong to the Il-khans – Sati Beg and Suleyman.
    10. In Leliani village (Lagodekhi district) during agricultural works a hoard of Il-khanid coins was found in a clay pot. The hoard was divided between the finders. The extant 5 coins were introduced into Simon Janashia State Museum of Georgia in 1962. All the five coins were struck in the name of Suleyman in A.H. 741 (=1340/1341) at different mints – Tabriz, Barda, and Tbilisi. Mint name on two coins is erased.
    11. A large hoard of silver coins was found in Likani village (Borjomi district) in 1933 during agricultural works. From this hoard only 2 coins were introduced to the State Museum of Georgia. The coins are double dirhems of Hulaguid Suleyman struck in A.H. 742 (=1341/1342).
    12. Near Tsnoristskali station (Signagi district) a hoard of silver coins was found in 1953. The hoard was divided between the finders. One coin belongs to Il-khan Suleyman.
    13. A clay vessel with approximately 150 silver coins was accidentally found in 1952 in Podaani village (Lagodekhi district). Two coins struck in the name of Il-khans, Suleyman and Anushirwan (1344-1356) were brought to Simon Janashia State Museum of Georgia for identification. Suleyman’s coin was struck at Tbilisi mint.
    14. A hoard of Hulaguid silver coins was found in Karaghaji village (Tsiteltskaro/Dedoplistskaro district). With the support of the Committee for Protection of  Antiquities the hoard was given over to the Historical Museum of the Academy of Sciences of Armenia. The hoard consists of coins of Suleyman and Anushirwan. Except for 1 coin, all are dirhems. The coins of Suleyman were struck at the following mints: Tabriz, Sultania, and on 6 coins city name is unreadable. The Coins of Anushirwan were struck at the following mints: Ardebil, Bazar, Tabriz, Karaghaji, Maragheh, Barda, Gushtasp, Ganja, Tbilisi, Shirvan. On some of the coins city names are unreadable. The hoard was buried in the beginning of the second half of the 14th c.
    15. A hoard of silver coins of Anushirwan was found in 1957 in Tsiteltskaro, on Giorgi Saakadze street, during agricultural works. The hoard is kept in Simon Janashia Museum of Georgia. The hoard consists of 6 double dirhems. The earliest coin from the hoard is dated by A.H. 747 (=1346/47), the latest – by A.H. 755 (=1354).
    16. 24 silver coins were found in 1949 in Karaghaji during land study. The coins were struck in the name of Hulaguid Anushirwan. The coins were struck at the following mints: Anisi, Shirvan, Ganja, Tabriz, Bazar, Maragheh. The earliest coin from the hoard is dated by A.H. 748 (=1347/1348), the latest – by A.H. 753 (=1352/1353). Its burial might have happened in the third quarter of the 14th c. The hoard is kept at Simon Janashia Museum of Georgia.
    17. 60 silver coins struck in A.H. 740-759 (=1339/40-1357/58) in the name of Hulaguids, Juchids, Jala’irids and Muzafarids were found in 1860 near Tbilisi. One  part of the hoard was handed over to the  Hermitage.
    18. A hoard of 160 silver coins was found in 1861 in the outskirts of Tbilisi. The hoard consisted of small coins struck at Tbilisi in the name of Hulaguids, Juchids, Jala’irids, and Giorgi VII and Ahmad Jala’ir. The hoard was buried at the turn of the 14th-15th cc.
    19. A clay vessel with 83 small silver coins was found in Dzukati village (Akhalgori district) in 1955 during road works. All of them are identical and struck by Jala’irid Sheikh Uvais (1356-1375) at Tbilisi mint.
    20. From the hoards found in the 1900s in the outskirts of Tbilisi E. Pakhomov examined Sheikh Uvais (3 samples) and Ahmad’s (19 samples) coins. They seem to be imitations.
    21. A clay pot with 300 silver coins was found in 1948 in Boshura village (Gori district). The hoard was divided among its several finders. Attribution of only   one of the coins became possible and it turned out to be the coin struck in the name of Giorgi VII and Ahmad Jala’ir.
    22. A hoard of small silver money, found in 1950 in Patsviskhevi village (Gori district), was divided among its finders. Museum of Gori managed to collect 72 coins. This latter part contains: unidentified Georgian coin with the depiction of an animal – 1; silver coins of Giorgi VII and Ahmad Jala’ir with Arabic   inscription – 68; silver coins of Giorgi VII and Ahmad Jala’ir with Georgian inscription – 3.
    23. From a hoard of Kirmaneuli tetri found in the 1900s in Akhaltsikhe district Pakhomov examined some 20 pieces.
    24. Extant 4 coins from a hoard, dispersed upon its discovery in 1905 in Dusheti, were Kirmaneuli.
    25. A hoard of Juchid money, several Georgian coins and Kirmaneuli was found in 1900 in Gori district.
    26. According to E. Takaishvili, a hoard, found in 1905 in Dusheti, contained 960 silver coins. The hoard was dispersed. According to Pakhomov, the extant 4 coins are as follows: “King of the Kings Giorgi”, i.e. “Giorgauli” (Coins of Giorgi VII with the “depiction of an open eye”); Kirmaneuli tetri; 2 Juchid coins struck in the name of Tochtamysh in the Horde. On one of them a date is read as A.H. 792 (=1389/90).
    27. A hoard of silver coins was found in 1925 in Ali village (Khashuri district). The hoard contains 471 silver coins and is kept at Simon Janashia Museum of Georgia. The hoard consists of the following coins: Golden Horde – 204 coins; Jala’irids – 4; Kirmaneuli – 1; Giorgi VII and Ahmad Jala’ir – 249; unidentified Georgian coins – 10; worn – 2. The hoard was buried either at the end of the 14th c. or the beginning of the 15th c.