Subgroup: Silver coins of David VIII with the Christian prayer
Type: Subgroup: Silver coins of David VIII with the Christian prayer

Description, picture:
Drama. Weight≈2,44 gr.

d=20-22 mm.

Obverse: Arabic legend in four lines:
پادشاه اعظم
سلطان محمود
غازان خان
خلد الله ملکه
The most mighty king, sultan Mahmud Ghazan Khan, may God perpetuate his reign.

Reverse: Area within square of dots, Christian prayer in four lines in Arabic (as on the Georgian-Hulaguid coins):
بسم الاب
والابن وروح
القدس الاه
واحد
In the name of the Father, and the Son and the Holy Spirit, One God. Instead of cross, Georgian legend:  ႫႴႣ, i.e. king David. The segments between square and outer circle contain date formula, which is A.H. 696 (=1296/97). According to the months given on the coins, it became clear that their issue continued for four months (seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth) of A.H. 696, which corresponds to April–July period of 1297.

Scholarly commentary:
    In 1222-1245 queen Tamar’s daughter Rusudan ruled in Georgia. It turned out to be an unfortunate reign. First, Georgia was invaded by Jalāl al-Din and then – by the Mongols.
    A new stage began in the history of the Georgian numismatics under Rusudan’s rule and this was well exemplified by the following: 1) issue of the so-called irregular coins was stopped; 2) issue of silver coins was renewed. However, this was not only the Georgian novelty. Just like the “silver famine” in the Middle East, this process was on a global scale.
    According to the composition, Rusudan’s silver coins (Silver coins of Rusudan with the effigy of Christ) are close to the Byzantine money and have the same weight as synchronous dirhems (weights range from 2,35 to 2,70 gr.).

Obverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus, pallium and colobium and raising right hand in benediction, holds ornamented book of Gospels in left hand. Greek legend: ΙC ΧC. Marginal Georgian Asomtavruli legend: ႱႠႾႤႪႨႧႠႶႧႨႱႨႧႠႨႽႤႣႠႵჃႬ, in the name of God, was struck in the K’oronikon 450 (=1230).
Reverse: In the centre of an ornamented frame, which is reminiscent of a badge depicted on queen Tamar’s coin dated by 1200 (T. Barnaveli thinks it is a “spearhead-like figure”), three Asomtavruli letters ႰႱႬ, i.e Rusudan. Marginal legend:
ملكة  الملكات جلال الدنيا والدين   روسدان بنت تامار ظهير المسيح
Queen of the Queens, glory of the world and faith, Rusudan, daughter of Tamar, champion of the Messiah.

    Christ’s bust is borrowed from the nomisma of the Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus III Botaneiates (1078-1081). This explains the fact that in Georgian charters Rusudan’s dramas are referred to as “Botinati” or “Botinauri”. Sometimes they are called ‘Tskhumuri tetri’ (here tetri is a counting unit). It was suggested that Rusudan’s silver money was struck in Tskhumi (Sokhumi). Indeed, Tbilisi at this time was occupied by Jalāl al-Din.
    Various variants of these coins differ from each another by some peculiar features.
    In the scholarly literature the described silver coins are referred to as dramas. Rarer is half drama of which only two samples are known (with smaller size and weight (1,25-1,30 gr.)). There are no marginal legends on these coins.
    After Jalāl al-Din Georgia fell under the Mongol overlordship.
    The changed political situation left an indelible trace on Georgian numismatics. Both, the face of money and the legends drastically changed. The Georgrian coins of the time reflect a difficult political situation of the 13th-14th cc.
    The coins struck after Rusudan’s reign are divided into two groups: 1. Coins of the Georgian kings in the 13th-14th cc.; 2. Mongol occupation coins.
    For the moment, we will discuss only the coins of the Georgian kings.
    In A.H. 642 (=1244/45), when a Mongol silver coin in the name of Ulus(h) Bek was struck in Tbilisi mint, the mint in Dmanisi issued Georgian copper coin with the name of David (David Narin’s copper coins with one Asomtavruli letter inscribed into another).

Obverse: In the centre, Asomtavruli inscribed into , i.e. David. Persian inscription around it:
قاان بنده شاه جهان داود ملك
Slave of Qa’an, of the ruler of the world, David the king.
Reverse: Arabic legend in four lines:
شهر
دمانس
عمرها الله
 ٢ ثنىاربعين ستمائة
In the city of Dmanisi, may God perpetuate it, (in the year) 642 (=1244/45).

    The K’oronikon 465 (=1245) is often put at the lower part of the obverse of this coin. This date is sometimes also placed in the fifth line on the reverse of the same coin.
    This coin attests to the existence of an up-to-then unknown mint in Dmanisi.
    When a copper coin was struck in 1244/45 in Dmanisi in the name of David Narin, the king was not in Georgia, but - in Karakorum, where he was sent to be confirmed as king.
    In 1247 the Mongols simultaneously confirmed two claimants to the Georgian throne: David, son of Giorgi Lasha – elder, or Ulugh; and David, son of Rusudan – younger, or Narin. Both Davids returned to Georgia in 1247.
    After three years from the issue of the Dmanisi coin, in A.H. 645 (=1247/48) copper coins were struck in the name of David Narin in Tbilisi mint, but without the K’oronikon. This coin is identical to the copper coin from Dmanisi with two exceptions of having a different place of issue and a different date (A.H. 645).
    The money which had been out of circulation was used for striking of David Narin’s copper coins. Some details of Rusudan’s coins are sometimes visible under the die of David Narin. This explains as to why there was such a significant weights’ range in David Narin’s copper coins.
    In 1247 at Tbilisi mint silver coins  were struck in the name of David Narin (Silver coins of David Narin with the depiction of a horseman) with weights ranging from 2,4 to 2,7 gr.

Obverse: The king on horseback, right. Above, right, royal monogram meaning David, and Georgian Asomtavruli letters ႵႩჃჂႦ for the K’oronikon 467 (=1247). Above, left, six-pointed star.
Reverse: Persian legend in four lines:
بقوة خدا
دولة  كوك
قاان بنده
داود ملك
By the power of God, slave of Kuyuk (or Guyuk) Qā’ān’s rule – king David.
At right:
ضرب تفليس
Struck at Tbilisi.

    The depiction of a horseman on the coins struck in Georgia first appeared in A.H. 642 on Ulus(h) Bek’s money and afterwards – on David Narin’s coins. It is a copy of a horseman depicted on the 12th c. Seljuk coins. This, in turn, attests to close contacts existing between Georgia and the sultanate of Rum.
    Also at Tbilisi, rare silver coins of David Narin’s co-ruler David Ulugh were struck in A.H. 650, 651 and 652 (Silver issues of 1252-1255 of David Ulugh “Bagrationi”). It should be noted, however, that the Georgian legends on the coins disappear and the coins, overall, began to resemble Seljuk dirhems (weight≈2,73 gr.).

Obverse: Arabic legend in four lines:
داود ملك
ابن كيوركى
البقراطى
ضرب تفليس
King David, son of Giorgi, Bagrationi. Struck at Tbilisi.
Reverse: Persian legend in four lines:
بقوة خداى
یاقبال پاد شاهی
جهان منکو قاان
و ستماية سنة خمسين
With God’s power, by the will of Mangu Qā’ān, in the year 650 (=1252/53).

    Perhaps, rare copper coins  too should be attributed to David Ulugh (Copper coins of David Ulugh with the depiction of a horseman). Their description is as follows:

Obverse: Crowned figure of a horseman to the right. To both sides of the effigy – Asomtavruli and , i.e. David.
Reverse: Arabic legend in three lines:
الملك الملوك
داود بن كيوركى
حسام المسيح
King of the Kings David, son of Giorgi, sword of the Messiah.

    The exact attribution of the coin is widely discussed. Some scholars think the coin should have been struck by David IV (1089-1125). The majority, however, attribute it to David Ulugh, because the coin is the exact imitation of the iconography of the copper money of Seljuk Kaikhusrau I (1192-1200) of Rum. Therefore, its emission was impossible by David IV.
    When David Ulugh died in 1270, the qā’ān confirmed his young son Demetre II (1270-1289) as king of East Georgia. From 1280 onwards, simultaneously with the Mongol occupation coins, Demetre II struck money with national features (Copper coins of Demetre II with the “Bagrationi family badge”).

Obverse: Ornamented frame, much reminiscent of the one on Rusudan’s copper coins. In the centre, Asomtavruli is inscribed into Asomtavruli , i.e. Demetre; out, differently placed, Georgian legends: ႫႴ (king) or ႫႴႧ (King of the Kings), and in some cases – , i.e. K’oronikon 500 (=1280).
Reverse: In the centre, the same badge as on David’s and Tamar’s coin (D. Kapanadze calls it “Bagrationi family badge”). Around border of the dots, Christian prayer in Asomtavruli: ႢႥႼႫႱ ႫႠႫႨ ႻႨ ႣႠ ႱႪႨ ႼႨ, i.e. We believe in the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit.

    The prayer placed on Demetre II’s copper coin with Georgian legend is almost identical to the one on Georgian-Hulaguid dirhems which attests to their synchronism. There is a large number of variants of this monetary type. Also, it should be said, there exists one sample of Demetre II with the K’oronikon 506 (=1286) (the coin is kept at Telavi Historical Museum).
    The weights of Demetre II’s copper coins range from 1,45 to 3,20 gr.
    In 1292 the Il-khan Gaikhatu confirmed Demetre II’s son David VIII (1293-1311) as king over East Georgia. In the first years of his reign relations between East Georgia and the Il-khanate were stable. However, when in the succession battle for the Il-khanate, Ghazan defeated Baidu (1295), who was supported by David VIII, relations between the countries soared. But to avoid David VIII allying himself with the Golden Horde, the khan conducted very cautious policies towards the Georgian king.
    David VIII in various years struck silver as well as copper coins. Average weight of the silver coins (Silver coins of David VIII with the Christian prayer) is 2,44 gr.
    When the relations between Ghazan and David VIII finally worsened, the latter fled to Mtiuleti or Khevi (in the mountains) from where he continued his battle and monetary activities. In response, Ghazan khan confirmed as king of East Georgia David’s brother Vakhtang III, who also struck coins. Although, these coins are of an earlier period than David VIII’s copper ones, it is still preferable first to discuss latter’s money. It is worth noting that David VIII’s copper coins are almost analogous with Demetre II’s money, with the only difference that they are of smaller size and weight (Copper coins of David VIII with the “Bagrationi family badge”).

Obverse: In the centre of an ornamented frame Asomtavruli letter inscribed into , i.e. David. Out, Georgian legend: ႫႴႫႴ, i.e. King of the Kings. Sometimes below ႴႪ, i.e. K’oronikon 530 (=1310).
Reverse: Finely depicted “Bagrationi family badge” with the Christian prayer in Asomtavruli letters: ႢႥႼႫႱ ႫႠႫႨ ႻႨ ႣႠ ႱႪႨ ႼႨ, i.e. We believe in the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. Left and right to this badge sometimes is placed ႵႩ ႴႪ, i.e. K’oronikon 530 (= 1310).

    Thus, on some of the coins date is placed on obverse, on others – on reverse. We also encounter those pieces which do not have any date.
    Very important is to pinpoint the exact place where David was issuing his coins, thereby confirming the existence of yet another mint in Georgia. Unfortunately, the coins do not bear any sign of the place of issue, but, undoubtedly, the mint should have been either in Zhinvali or Stepantsminda (according to T. Lomouri).
    Thus, David VIII’s silver coins were struck in 1297, copper coins – in 1310. The gap between these two periods is filled with David’s brother Vakhtang III’s emissions. According to the chronology, accepted in the Georgian historiography, he reigned in 1302-1308, but as it will be shown below, this date needs some corrections. Vakhtang III, like his brother, struck silver and copper coins. Silver coins resemble a Georgian-Hulaguid dirhem, but still, however, represent the latter’s variant (Coins of Vakhtang III with the Christian prayer).

Obverse: Uighur legend in four lines:
Struck by Ghazan in the name of Qā’ān.
Reverse: Area within linear square:
In centre, cross within linear circle and a Christian prayer in Arabic around cross:
بسم الاب
والابن وروح
القدس الاه
واحد
In the name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit. There are two monograms read as ႥႬႢ ႫႴ, i.e. king Vakhtang. Between square and outer circle a date in Arabic: struck in the year 698  (=1298/99) and one of the months of the coin’s issue.

    The silver coin of Vakhtang III struck in A.H. 699 (=1299/1300) differs from the above coin only by one insignificant feature: dots or stars in quarters of cross.
    Although, there is no mint indication on Vakhtang III’s silver coins money, several coins still bear the legend: struck at Tbilisi.
    The above coins represent an important historical source, since they give a real date of Vakhtang III’s accession to the throne. T. Lomouri, based on the numismatic data, made corrections to the chronology of the Georgian kings’ regnal years. According to Lomouri, since Vakhtang was already mentioned as king on 1298/99 silver coin, he became king not in 1302, but in 1298/99. Moreover, even this date should be re-examined, because Ts. Ghvaberidze found a silver coin struck in A.H. 697 (=1297/98) in the name of Vakhtang III, thus making 1297 as the date of his accession to the throne.
    Analogous with Vakhtang III’s silver money are his copper coins, although there is no date on the extant ones. Generally, his copper coins can be dated by 1297-1304 (Vakhtang III ascended the throne in 1297, whereas Ghazan Khan died in 1304).
    Apart from that, there are also different copper coins belonging to Vakhtang III (Copper coins of Vakhtang III with the monograms).

Obverse: Arabic legend in three lines:
يادشاه
جهان خزان
مخمود خلد ملكه
The most mighty king, Ghazan Mahmud, may God perpetuate his reign.
Under the third line two Asomtavruli monograms which are read as ႥႬႢ ႫႴ, i.e. king Vakhtang.
Reverse: Area in square within circle of the dots and Arabic legend in three lines:
لا لله الا
الله وحده
لا شريك له
There is no god, but Allāh alone, he has no associate.
 
Obverse: Arabic legend in four lines:
...السلطان ا
غياث الدنيا و الدين
خدابنده محمد
خلد الله ملكه
The most mighty sultan, Ghiyath al-Dunya wa’l-Din, Khudabandeh Muhammad, may God perpetuate his reign.
The legend is placed within a linear square. Out, an unreadable inscription.
Reverse: Arabic legend in four lines:
الله
لااله الا
محمد
رسول الله
There is no god, but Allāh alone, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allāh.
Below the monogram composed of three Asomtavruli letters ႥႬႢ, i.e. Vakhtang.

    There is no date on the above coins. First issue should be dated by 1297-1304 (Vakhtang III became king in 1297, whereas Ghazan Qā’ān died in 1304); second issue – by 1304-1308 (Muhammad Khudābandeh (Ūljāitū) ascended the throne in 1304, whereas Vakhtang III died in 1308).
Next coin is similar to the second emission of the copper coins of Vakhtang III with the monograms. The only difference between them is that on this coin Vakhtang’s monogram is replaced with the letter , which, most probably, means Giorgi. According to the historical sources, such a person indeed existed. This was David VIII’s son Giorgi VI the Lesser, who in 1309 was confirmed as king of East Georgia. Obviously, this coin refers to him.
    Chronologically, the above numismatic material should be followed by the only two extant coins struck in the name of Il-khan Abū Sa‘id. There is a standard Arabic inscription on the coins, and a seemingly Georgian Mkhedruli letter გ – “G” on the margin of the obverse.
    During the reign of Il-khan Abū Sa‘id, it was Giorgi the Brilliant (1318-1346) who ruled over Georgia, and it is very probable that the „გ“-looking sign was a first letter of Giorgi’s name.
    D. Kapanadze tried to introduce anonymous silver coins into Georgian numismatics, which he attributes to the 2nd half of the 14th c. by virtue of their weight, size, fabric and other features. On some of those coins there is a depiction of a bird, on others – lion, or a mountain goat. Arabic legends are distorted. According to Kapanadze, on 2 or 3 coins with the depiction of a mountain goat there is a marginal, barely extant, Asomtavruli legend, which, it seems, includes the letters of Bagrat’s name. It is not obvious, but if in the future it can be attested, the coins are to be attributed to Bagrat V (1360-1393).
    There are also several copper coins, which, possibly, were struck by Bagrat V (weight≈5,48 gr.).

Obverse: Asomtavruli placed in the centre within the linear circle around. Asomtavruli legend in abbreviation around the circle reads as “in the name of God”.
Reverse: Distorted Arabic legend in four lines.

    The issue is subject to discussion and needs further analysis to ascertain to which of the two Bagrats (Bagrat IV or Bagrat V) belong the coins, because several analogous pieces were struck irregularly.
Rare silver coins (Coins of Giorgi VII with the “depiction of an open eye”) which should be attributed to Giorgi VII (1393-1407) have the description as follows:

Obverse: Large dot in the centre. Unreadable signs to both sides of it, which more resemble the inverted formula “to the god” in Arabic. This, placed within the pointed oval, creates a figure of a man’s open eye. At the ends of the coin, Asomtavruli legend: ႫႤႴႤႧ/ႫႴႤ ႢႨ, i.e. King of the Kings Giorgi.
Reverse: Distorted Arabic legend (Sunni religious formula).

Obverse: Man’s open eye. Large Asomtavruli letters in the centre: and , i.e. king. Outside the frame waving lines and several dots.
Reverse: Distorted Arabic legend in three lines (Sunni religious formula).

Obverse: Large dot in the centre with each dot to both sides of it, all placed within pointed oval. Waving lines and each dot at the top and the bottom. All this placed within double circle: one border of dots, another - linear.
Reverse: Distorted Arabic legend in three lines (Sunni religious formula) placed within the identical circles as on the obverse.

    According to D. Kapanadze, the above coins belong to Giorgi V the Brilliant (1318-1346). Today, however, they are attributed to Giorgi VII.
    First argument for such an attribution is the deposit period of the hoards to which those coins belong. The hoard of Dusheti was buried after 1389/90, whereas the hoard from Ali – at the turn of the 14th-15th cc.
    The second argument is their weight. The average weight of the coins is less than 1 gr. The weights of the coins kept at the National Museum of Georgia range from 0,85 to 0,99 gr. and is close to the weight of the coins struck in the name of Giorgi VII and Ahmad Jalā’ir (the weights range from 0,57 to 0,80 gr. For comparison, the weight of a double dirhem struck at Tbilisi in Giorgi V the Brilliant’s reign was 3,5 gr.).
    Among Giorgi VII’s coins the most interesting are the ones from a hoard found near Tbilisi in 1861. They were published by V. Langlois in the same year. However, he did not read the legends correctly. These coins’ weights range from 0,57 to 0,80 gr. It should be emphasized that the first scholar who thoroughly studied the coins, revealed Langlois’ erroneous arguments, and set tight chronological limits for the coins was T. Lomouri. In doing this, she was helped by the hoard found in 1925 in Ali village (Khashuri district). The hoard contains 471 silver coins, out of which 249 are those interesting for us (Silver coins of Giorgi VII and Ahmad Jalā’ir) (the attribution of the coins belongs to T. Lomouri). Here is the description:

Obverse: Arabic legend in four lines:
سلطان
احمد خان ملكه
ملك  غازى كيركر
ضرب تفليس
Sultan Ahmad, may his reign be perpetuated, victorious king Giorgi.
Struck at Tbilisi.
Reverse: Arabic legend within double linear square, with the linear circle and the circle of the dots around it:
لا اله الا
الله
محمد
رسول الله
There is no god but Allāh alone, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allāh. Between the square and circle name of the four Caliphs.

    249 coins from the hoard of Ali struck in the name of Giorgi VII and Ahmad Jalā’ir are not the same by their preservation and technical features. Their smaller part (28 pieces) are “regular” coins with readable legends. 89 pieces are analogous with the the above 28 ones by the contents, but are, however, of lower quality – legends are initially badly inscribed. The third group, 74 pieces, should have derived from the latter group, but the legends are put in mirror. The rest of the coins are worn and unreadable.
    The above coins were struck in commemoration of Giorgi VII and Ahmad Jalā’ir’s victory over Tamerlane’s troops at Alinje fortress at the end of the 14th c.
There are also rare coins synchronous to the above money.

Obverse: Arabic legend in two lines:
ضرب تفليس
ملك غازاى كيركر
Struck at Tbilisi. Victorious king Giorgi.
Reverse: Arabic legend in three lines:
سلطان
احمد
خان
Sultan Ahmad Khan.

Obverse: Asomtavruli legend in two lines placed within square with linear circle around it: ႫႴႧႫႴႤ/ႢႰႢႨ, i.e. King of the Kings Giorgi.
Reverse: Arabic legend in three lines:
سلطان
احمد
خان
Sultan Ahmad Khan.
Mint: Tbilisi (?).
Nominal: Drama.
Date: 1297.
Collection: Simon Janashia Museum of Georgia – ex. QF. (Main Fund of the Georgian Coins, Numismatic Collection, Simon Janashia Museum of Georgia) №302, QF. №№2276-2282, QF. №2915; GF (Fund of Treasury, Numismatic Collection, Simon Janashia Museum of Georgia.) №№5427-5548, GF. №№10107-10108, GF. №10110; Hermitage – 4 samples.
Bibliography:
G. Dundua. Money in Georgia (Georg. and Engl. parallel texts). Tb. 2003 (2nd Edition) (T. Dundua, N. Javakhishvili and A. Eristavi as co-authors); Georgian Numismatics. I. Tb. 2006 (T. Dundua as co-author) (in Georg.); Georgian Numismatics. II. Tb. 2011 (T. Dundua as co-author) (in Georg.); Georgian Numismatic Dictionary. Tb. 2009 (Ir. Jalaghania as co-author) (in Georg.); Eastern Georgian Money Issues in the 14th c. Tb. 2010 (T. Dundua as co-author) (in Georg.).

Ts. Ghvaberidze. Relations of Georgia with the Il-khanid Iran and the Jalairids. Tb. 1986 (in Georg.).

D. Kapanadze. Georgian Numismatics. Tb. 1969 (in Georg.).

T. Lomouri. Kodala Hoard. Bulletin (“Moambe”) of the State Museum of Georgia. Vol. XIV-B. Tb. 1947 (in Georg.); Kodala Hoard. Part II. About History of Money Circulation in Medieval Georgia – Selected Articles. Tb. 2005 (in Georg.); About the Relations of Georgia with the Golden Horde in the 14th c. (Juchid Money of Ali Hoard). About History of Money Circulation in Medieval Georgia – Selected Articles. Tb. 2005 (in Georg.); Coins of Ahmad Jala’ir and Giorgi VII. About History of Money Circulation in Medieval Georgia – Selected Articles. Tb. 2005 (in Georg.); Money of the last Il-khans in Georgia. About History of Money Circulation in Medieval Georgia – Selected Articles. Tb. 2005 (in Georg.).

И. Л. Джалаганиа. Из истории монетного дела в Грузии XIII века. Тб. 1958.

Д. Г. Капанадзе. Грузинская нумизматика. М. 1955.

Е. А. Пахомов. Монеты Грузии. Тб. 1970; Монетные клады Азербайджана и других республик, краев и областей Кавказа. Вып. I-IX. Баку. 1926-66.

D. M. Lang. Studies in the Numismatic History of Georgia in Transcaucasia. New York. 1955.
Imported coins found in Georgia:


Imported coins of the 13th-14th  cc. found in East Georgia


    While reviewing the imported coins of this period found in East Georgia, we will pay attention to various hoards since their contents reflect well the circulation picture of imported coins across East Georgia.
    1. Hoard from Kodala. With the help of I. Mosulishvili, a hoard of silver coins was transferred into State Museum of Georgia in three phases in 1940, 1941 and 1948. The hoard, which contains 502 coins, was found in Kodala village (Gurjaani district).
    The hoard from Kodala was studied and first published by T. Lomouri with some additions afterwards made by Ts. Ghvaberidze.
    According to the attribution of T. Lomouri, the hoard contains money struck in the name of Ghazan Khan (1295-1304) and sultan Uljaitu (1304-1316), one Seljuk coin which belongs to the sultan of Rum Kaihkusrau II (1236-1245).
    The majority of the coins (491) are dirhems, 10 are double dirhems. Most of the coins are struck in the name of Ghazan Khan.
    After another review of the coins, dates and names of mint were clarified. Here are the mints where the coins were struck: Tbilisi (166), Tabriz (62),  Akhaltsikhe (18), Sivas (20), Jezire (16), Samsun (3), Bazar (12), Nakhchivan (12), Khlat (Ahlat) (9), Nisa (13), Erbil (9), Barda (8), Baghdad (7), Erzincan  (7), Sinjar (6), Mosul (5), Tokat (4), Erzerum (3), Isfahan (3), Anisi (3), Amasia (7), Beq-Bazar (8), Hile (2), Mayyafariqin (2), Hydlis (1), Ganja (1), Save  (1), Wasit (1), Arminia (?) (1), Shiraz (1), Hamadan (1), Qashan (1), Ravia (1), Nishabur (1), Shusther (3).
    Ts. Ghvaberidze doubted the name of mint on some of the standard dirhems of Ghazan Khan, suggested by T. Lomouri. Lomouri reads the mint name as “Samsun”.  However, according to the graphics, it should be “Nisa”, city to the south-east of the Caspian Sea, located on a trade route, 20 km. from Ashkhabad.
    One-third of the hoard was struck at Tbilisi mint; then comes the money from Tabriz; from Sivas; from Akhaltsikhe etc. The demand of East Georgia market was  mainly filled with the money from Tbilisi mint.
    Lomouri dated the hoard from Kodala by A.H. 694-715 (=1294-1315/16). Ts. Ghvaberidze dated the hoard by A.H. 696-705 (=1296-1306). The hoard was buried after A.H. 705 (=1306).
    2. A hoard of silver coins was accidentally found in 1979 in Poka village (Ninotsminda district) near Paravani Lake. The hoard was placed in a clay vessel. The  part of the hoard was lost and only 155 pieces are kept at Simon Janashia Museum of Georgia. The hoard contained the coins struck in the name of Uljaitu (double  dirhems and dirhems) from the following mints: Tbilisi (27), Anisi (14), Samsun (?) (11), Tabriz (8), Bazar (3), Barda (1), Garnisi (1), Baghdad (1), Sultania  (1), Erzincan (1). The earliest coin from the hoard is dated by A.H. 709 (=1309/1310), whereas the latest – by A.H. 715 (=1315/1316). The hoard of Poka was buried after 1316. However, following the reattribution of the above money, the quantitative distribution of dirhems according to various mints is slightly different.
    3. Silver coins of 13th-14th cc. were found in 1968 in Uraveli village (Akhaltsikhe district) during demolition works. The composition of the hoard is as follows: a) dirhems of the 20-30s of 13th c. from Rum – 5; b) “Qā’ānic” I “type” – 1; c) Qā’ānic” II “type” – 2; d) Georgian-Hulaguid dirhems – 4; e) dramas of Vakhtang III (1297-1308) struck at Tbilisi mint in A.H. 698 (=1298/99) – 4; f) dirhems of Ghazan Qa’an – 2; g) dirhems of Hulaguid Abu-Sa’id – 1. The hoard which was buried after 1333, is nowadays kept at Simon Janashia Museum  of Georgia.
    4. 3 coins from a hoard of the silver coins found in 1958 during the agricultural works in Darchieti village (Gurjaani distrit) were introduced into Simon Janashia Museum of Georgia: 1. dirhem of Kaihkusrau the Seljukid struck in A.H. 628 (=1230/1231); 2. dirhem of Hulaguid Abaqa (1265-1282); 3. double dirhem of Abu-Sa’id struck in A.H. 724 (=1323/1324) at Tabriz.
    5. A small hoard of silver coins (11) was found in 1979 during agricultural works in Jandara village (Marneuli district). 3 coins are struck at Tbilisi in the  name of Uljaitu, 2 of them are dated by A.H. 714 (=1314/1315). 1 coin belongs to the mint of Anisi and is dated by A.H. 711 (=1311/1312). 7 double dirhems belong to Il-khan Abu-Sa’id (1316-1335), 4 out of them were struck at Tbilisi in A.H. 727 (=1326/1327). Name of a mint on two of the coins is unreadable, whereas 1 coin was struck at Sultania in A.H. 724 (=1323/1324). Most probably, the hoard was buried in the late 20s of the 14th c. The coins are kept at Simon Janashia Museum of Georgia.
    6. A hoard of silver coins found in 1948 near Grigolati village (Kharagauli district) was divided between the finders. Only 3 pieces were examined, and all of  them are double dirhems of Abu-Sa’id.
    7. 92 silver coins in a clay pot were found in Patara Gomareti village (Dmanisi district) in 1936. This money belongs to the last Hulaguids: Muhammad (1335-1338) – 2; Sati Beg (1338-1340) – 5; Tughatemur (1336-1340) – 1; Suleyman (1339-1346) – 80. 4 pieces are unidentified. The dirhems were struck at the following  mints: Bazar, Tbilisi, Tabriz, Shirvan (?), Barda, Sultania, Anisi. The hoard was buried after the 40s of the 14th c.
    8. Silver coins (243 samples) of the last Hulaguids were found in 1862 in Sartichala village (Sagarejo district). The hoard was placed in faience vessel inside an old tomb. Its contents are as follows: money of Sati Beg Khatun struck in A.H. 739 (=1338/1339) at the following mints – Ardebil, Bazar, Belaqan, Khoi and some are unidentified; coins of Suleyman struck in A.H. 740 (=1339/1340) at the following mints: Ardebil, Bazar, Baku (?), Baiburt, Barda, Belaqan, Qashan, Calistuvan, Nachchivan, Hamadan, Tabriz, Maragheh, Sultania, Khoi, Salmas. The hoard was buried in the mid-14th c.
    9. A hoard of silver coins was found in 1954 during the works on Tskhinvali-Kheiti  road. The hoard was dispersed. The extant 22 coins belong to the Il-khans – Sati Beg and Suleyman.
    10. In Leliani village (Lagodekhi district) during agricultural works a hoard of Il-khanid coins was found in a clay pot. The hoard was divided between the finders. The extant 5 coins were introduced into Simon Janashia State Museum of Georgia in 1962. All the five coins were struck in the name of Suleyman in A.H. 741 (=1340/1341) at different mints – Tabriz, Barda, and Tbilisi. Mint name on two coins is erased.
    11. A large hoard of silver coins was found in Likani village (Borjomi district) in 1933 during agricultural works. From this hoard only 2 coins were introduced to the State Museum of Georgia. The coins are double dirhems of Hulaguid Suleyman struck in A.H. 742 (=1341/1342).
    12. Near Tsnoristskali station (Signagi district) a hoard of silver coins was found in 1953. The hoard was divided between the finders. One coin belongs to Il-khan Suleyman.
    13. A clay vessel with approximately 150 silver coins was accidentally found in 1952 in Podaani village (Lagodekhi district). Two coins struck in the name of Il-khans, Suleyman and Anushirwan (1344-1356) were brought to Simon Janashia State Museum of Georgia for identification. Suleyman’s coin was struck at Tbilisi mint.
    14. A hoard of Hulaguid silver coins was found in Karaghaji village (Tsiteltskaro/Dedoplistskaro district). With the support of the Committee for Protection of  Antiquities the hoard was given over to the Historical Museum of the Academy of Sciences of Armenia. The hoard consists of coins of Suleyman and Anushirwan. Except for 1 coin, all are dirhems. The coins of Suleyman were struck at the following mints: Tabriz, Sultania, and on 6 coins city name is unreadable. The Coins of Anushirwan were struck at the following mints: Ardebil, Bazar, Tabriz, Karaghaji, Maragheh, Barda, Gushtasp, Ganja, Tbilisi, Shirvan. On some of the coins city names are unreadable. The hoard was buried in the beginning of the second half of the 14th c.
    15. A hoard of silver coins of Anushirwan was found in 1957 in Tsiteltskaro, on Giorgi Saakadze street, during agricultural works. The hoard is kept in Simon Janashia Museum of Georgia. The hoard consists of 6 double dirhems. The earliest coin from the hoard is dated by A.H. 747 (=1346/47), the latest – by A.H. 755 (=1354).
    16. 24 silver coins were found in 1949 in Karaghaji during land study. The coins were struck in the name of Hulaguid Anushirwan. The coins were struck at the following mints: Anisi, Shirvan, Ganja, Tabriz, Bazar, Maragheh. The earliest coin from the hoard is dated by A.H. 748 (=1347/1348), the latest – by A.H. 753 (=1352/1353). Its burial might have happened in the third quarter of the 14th c. The hoard is kept at Simon Janashia Museum of Georgia.
    17. 60 silver coins struck in A.H. 740-759 (=1339/40-1357/58) in the name of Hulaguids, Juchids, Jala’irids and Muzafarids were found in 1860 near Tbilisi. One  part of the hoard was handed over to the  Hermitage.
    18. A hoard of 160 silver coins was found in 1861 in the outskirts of Tbilisi. The hoard consisted of small coins struck at Tbilisi in the name of Hulaguids, Juchids, Jala’irids, and Giorgi VII and Ahmad Jala’ir. The hoard was buried at the turn of the 14th-15th cc.
    19. A clay vessel with 83 small silver coins was found in Dzukati village (Akhalgori district) in 1955 during road works. All of them are identical and struck by Jala’irid Sheikh Uvais (1356-1375) at Tbilisi mint.
    20. From the hoards found in the 1900s in the outskirts of Tbilisi E. Pakhomov examined Sheikh Uvais (3 samples) and Ahmad’s (19 samples) coins. They seem to be imitations.
    21. A clay pot with 300 silver coins was found in 1948 in Boshura village (Gori district). The hoard was divided among its several finders. Attribution of only   one of the coins became possible and it turned out to be the coin struck in the name of Giorgi VII and Ahmad Jala’ir.
    22. A hoard of small silver money, found in 1950 in Patsviskhevi village (Gori district), was divided among its finders. Museum of Gori managed to collect 72 coins. This latter part contains: unidentified Georgian coin with the depiction of an animal – 1; silver coins of Giorgi VII and Ahmad Jala’ir with Arabic   inscription – 68; silver coins of Giorgi VII and Ahmad Jala’ir with Georgian inscription – 3.
    23. From a hoard of Kirmaneuli tetri found in the 1900s in Akhaltsikhe district Pakhomov examined some 20 pieces.
    24. Extant 4 coins from a hoard, dispersed upon its discovery in 1905 in Dusheti, were Kirmaneuli.
    25. A hoard of Juchid money, several Georgian coins and Kirmaneuli was found in 1900 in Gori district.
    26. According to E. Takaishvili, a hoard, found in 1905 in Dusheti, contained 960 silver coins. The hoard was dispersed. According to Pakhomov, the extant 4 coins are as follows: “King of the Kings Giorgi”, i.e. “Giorgauli” (Coins of Giorgi VII with the “depiction of an open eye”); Kirmaneuli tetri; 2 Juchid coins struck in the name of Tochtamysh in the Horde. On one of them a date is read as A.H. 792 (=1389/90).
    27. A hoard of silver coins was found in 1925 in Ali village (Khashuri district). The hoard contains 471 silver coins and is kept at Simon Janashia Museum of Georgia. The hoard consists of the following coins: Golden Horde – 204 coins; Jala’irids – 4; Kirmaneuli – 1; Giorgi VII and Ahmad Jala’ir – 249; unidentified Georgian coins – 10; worn – 2. The hoard was buried either at the end of the 14th c. or the beginning of the 15th c.